Yini okungafani - izinhlobo nezinhlelo zokusebenza

Ulayini we-contour ulayini ojoyina izinjongo zenani elilinganayo. Ku-cartography, ama-exclins ahlangana ukuze akhombise ukuphakama okulingana ngaphezulu kwezinga elijwayelekile, njengezinga lolwandle elijwayelekile. Imephu ye-contour iyisiqondiso sokubonisa okugqamile kwesimo sendawo sisebenzisa imigqa. Isetshenziswa njalo ukukhombisa ukuphakama, ukuthambekela kanye nokujula kwezigodi namagquma. Isikhala esiphakathi kokuncishiselwa emuva kwemephu emuva sibizwa ngokuthi isimo esisezingeni eliphakathi futhi sibonisa umehluko phezulu.

Nge-ArcGIS ungafunda ukusebenzisa okungabodwa okungcono, ngakho-ke imephu ingaxhumana nendawo enezinhlangothi ezintathu yanoma iyiphi insimu emephini enezici ezimbili. Ngokwazi imephu yokuhlukanisa noma ukwaba ibanga, iklayenti lingakwazi ukuhumusha ukuthambeka komhlaba. Noma ngabe ukujula noma ukuphakama kwendawo, ama-geoforms angakhuluma nge-geology yendawo. Isikhala esiphakathi kokuhlukaniswa okubili emigqeni sinikeza ikhasimende idatha ebalulekile.

Imigqa ingagobeka, iqonde noma inhlanganisela yazo zombili ezingadelani. Inkomba yokuphakama okukhonjiswe ngabodwa, imvamisa yindawo ephakathi yolwandle. Isikhala esilandelanayo phakathi kwama-exclines sibonisa ukuthambekela komhlaba ongaphansi kocwaningo futhi sibizwa ngokuthi "isikhashana". Uma kwenzeka ukuthi ama-exclines ahlakazeke ngokuqinile, azokhombisa ukuthambekela okungathandeki. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma ama-engines ekhonjiswe kude kakhulu, kunenkulumo yesithambeka esintekenteke. Imifudlana, imigwaqo yamanzi esigodini iboniswa njenge "v" noma "u" kumephu yamajika.

Ama-Curves ajwayele ukunikezwa amagama nesiqalo "iso" esisho ukuthi "okulinganayo" esiGrekini, ngohlobo lokushintshwa kwemephu. I-prefix «iso» ingafakwa esikhundleni se- «isallo» esinquma ukuthi umugqa wefomu ujoyina lapho izinguquko eziguquguqukayo zivela ngejubane elifanayo ngesikhathi esithile esinqunyelwe. Ngaphandle kokuthi ijika lesigamu livame ukusetshenziswa, amanye amagama asetshenziswa kaningi kuma-meteorology, lapho kunethuba elikhulu lokusebenzisa amamephu we-topographic anezici eziningana ngasiphi isikhathi. Ngokufanayo, izikhala ezihlukaniswe ngokulinganayo nemidwebo ikhombisa ukuthambela okufanayo.

Umlando we-exclins

Ukusetshenziswa kwemigqa exhuma amaphuzu enani elilinganayo, kubekhona isikhathi eside yize bebezazana ngamagama ahlukile. Ukusetshenziswa kokuqoshwa kokuqala kwemigqa ye-contour kwenziwa ukukhombisa ukujula komgwaqo wamanzi waseSpararne oseduze naseHaarlem ngumDashi ogama lakhe linguPieter Bruinsz ngonyaka we-1584. Ama-Isoline asho ukujula okungapheli njengamanje abizwa ngokuthi "isobats." Kuyo yonke le minyaka eyishumi ye-1700, imigqa emidwebweni nasemamephini ibisetshenziselwa ukuqonda ukujula nosayizi wezidumbu zamanzi nezindawo. U-Edmond Halley ku-1701 usetshenziswe imigqa ye-isogonic contour enezinhlobonhlobo ezikhangayo. U-Nicholas Cruquius wasebenzisa ama-isobatas anama-intermediates alingana ne-1 fathom ukuqonda nokudonsa umbhede wamanzi we-Merwede ngonyaka we-1727, ngenkathi uPhilippe Buache wasebenzisa isikhathi esiphakathi se-10 fathoms ye-English Channel ngonyaka we-1737. Ku-1746 Domenico Vandelli wasebenzisa ama-contours ukwenza umphezulu, ukudweba isiqondisi se-Duchy of Modena neReggio. Ku-1774 waqondisa ukuhlolwa kwe-Schiehallion ukukala ubukhulu bomhlaba ojwayelekile. Umqondo wokuzimele usetshenziselwe ukuhlola ukuthambeka kwezintaba njengobufakazi. Ukusuka lapho, ukusetshenziswa kwama-kudzipines kwimephu kwaba y isu elivamile. Le ndlela isetshenziswe ku-1791 nguJL Dupain-Treil ukuthola umhlahlandlela ovela eFrance futhi kwi1801 Haxo wayisebenzisela izinkampani zabo eRocca d'Aufo. Kusukela kulowo mzuzwana kuqhubeke, kube nokusetshenziswa okujwayelekile kwama-kudzipines kwimephu nezinye izinhlelo zokusebenza ezihlukile.

Ku-1889 uFrancis Galton uhlongoze igama elithi "isogram" njengomthombo wokubukwa kwemigqa ekhombisa ukufana noma ukuqhathanisa kokubekwe obala kokucacile noma ngobuningi. Amagama athi "isogon", "pekee" ne "isarithm" ngokuvamile asetshenziselwa ukumelela ama-exclines. Inkulumo ethi "isoclins" isho umugqa othola ukugxila kanye nokuthambekela okulinganayo.

Izinhlobo kanye nokusetshenziswa kwezindawo ezikhethekile

Ama-Isoline asetshenziswe kabanzi kumamephu kanye nezinsizakalo zolwazi olungokomfanekiso nolungenakulinganiswa. Imigqa ye-Contour ingadonswa njengokuhlelwa noma njengokubuka kwephrofayili. Ukubuka okuyisicaba kuyifanekiselo yomhlahlandlela, ukuze isibukeli sikubone kusuka ngaphezulu. Ukubukwa kwephrofayili kuvame ukuba yipharamitha elinikezwe ngokuqondile. Isibonelo, imvelo yendawo ingamenyezelwa njengokuhlelwa noma ukuhlelwa kwemigqa, ngenkathi ukungcoliswa komoya esifundeni kungabonakala njengokubuka kwephrofayili.

Uma uthola ukuthambeka okuningana ngokweqile kusiqondisi, uzobona ukuthi ama-exclins ayahlangana ekuhlanganiseni bobunjwa be "transporter". Kulesi simo, umugqa wokugcina we-contour ngesinye isikhathi unamamaki wokuphothula akhombisa indawo ephansi. Ukunanzelela kuboniswa futhi ngemidwebo esondelene komunye nomunye futhi, cishe ngaphandle kwezimo, bayathintana noma baqiniswe ngokuqinile.

Imigqa ye-Contour isetshenziswa emikhakheni ehlukene, ukukhombisa imininingwane eminingi yendawo. Kunoma ikuphi, amagama asetshenziselwe ukuqamba ama-excline angashintsha ngohlobo lolwazi olukhulunywa ngalo.

Isayensi Yemvelo Ama-Isopleth asetshenziselwa ukwakha imigqa ekhombisa ukuguquguquka okungenakulinganiswa endaweni eyodwa, kepha, kuyinkambiso yolwazi eqoqwe endaweni enkulu, ngokwesibonelo, ubukhulu besibalo.

Ngokufanayo, endaweni yase-Isoflor, isoplette isetshenziswa ukuhlanganisa izifunda nezinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo eziqhathanisayo, ezibonisa izibonelo zokuhamba namaphethini ezinhlobo zezilwane.

Isayensi yezemvelo: Kunokusetshenziswa okuhlukile kokuhlukaniswa kwesayensi yemvelo. Amamephu wobukhulu bokungcola abalulekile ekuboniseni izindawo ezinamazinga aphakeme futhi aphansi wokungcoliswa, amazinga avumela amathuba okuthi ukungcola kukhuphuke esifundeni.

Ama-Isoplates asetshenziselwa ukukhombisa ukuhanjiswa kwemvelo okukhwabanisayo, kuyilapho isobelas isetshenziswa ukukhombisa amazinga wokungcola komqondo endaweni.

Umqondo wemigqa ye-contour usetshenzisiwe ekutshaleni nasefomeni yokufakelwa, eyaziwa ngokuthi inciphise ukuqhekeka kwenhlabathi ngezinga elingavamile ezindaweni, eceleni kwemigwaqo yamanzi noma ezinye izidumbu wamanzi

Isayensi Yezenhlalo: imigqa ye-contour isetshenziswa kaningi kuma-socialologies, ukubonisa izinhlobo noma ukukhombisa ukuphenya okuhlobene kokungafani endaweni ethile. Igama lomugqa wamafomu lishintsha ngohlobo lwedatha esebenza ngalo. Isibonelo, kwezomnotho, ama-kudziphi asetshenziselwa ukumelela amaphuzu aphezulu angaguquka ngaphezulu kwensimu, efana ne-isodapane ekhuluma ngendleko yesikhathi sokuhamba, isotim isho izindleko zokuhamba ezisuka emthonjeni wezinto ezingavuthiwe. Izinkulumo ezihlekisayo ngokwandisa inani lesizukulwane semininingwane ekhethiwe lisebenzisa

Izibalo: Ekuvivinyweni okungenakulinganiswa, ama-exclines asetshenziselwa ukuthola izindlela kanye nokulinganisa kobukhulu bokunokwenzeka, okubizwa ngokuthi ama-isodensity lines noma ama-isodensanes.

Isimo sezulu: Ama-Isoline asetshenziswa kakhulu kwi-meteorology. Imininingwane etholakala eziteshini zesimo sezulu kanye nama-satellite asezingeni lesimo sezulu, isiza ekwenzeni amamephu we-meteorological contours, akhombisa izimo zesimo sezulu njengokushawa kwezulu, i-pneumatic force ngesikhathi esithile. Ama-isotherms nama-isobars asetshenziswa kusethi yezembozo eziningi ukukhombisa izinto ezihlukile ze-thermodynamic ezithonya izimo zesimo sezulu.

Ucwaningo lokushisa: Kuluhlobo lwe-excline oluhlanganisa amaphuzu kanye namazinga okushisa afanayo, abizwa ngokuthi ama-isotherms nezindawo ezixhumeka ngemisebe yelanga elilinganayo eliboniswa yilanga zibizwa ngokuthi yi-isohel. Ama-Isoline, alingana nezinga lokushisa eliphakathi nonyaka abizwa ngokuthi yi-isogeotherms futhi izifunda ezihambisana nokushisa okuphakathi kobusika noma okulingana zibizwa ngama-isochemicals, kanti izinga lokushisa eliphakathi ehlobo libizwa ngokuthi isothere.

Isifundo somoya: Ku-meteorology, umugqa we-contour oxhumana nemininingwane yejubane lomoya oqhubekayo ubizwa ngokuthi isotach. Isogon ikhombisa ukushaya komoya njalo

Imvula nomswakama: Kusetshenziswa amagama amaningana ukubiza ama-pekee aqukethe amaphuzu noma izindawo ezinemvula nokuqukethwe ngodaka.

  • Isoyet noma Isoyeta: khombisa imvula yasendaweni
  • Isochalaz: yimigqa ekhombisa izindawo ezinokuphindaphindwa kwezichotho zesichotho.
  • Isobront: Yizinkomba ezikhombisa izindawo ezathola isenzo sokwenza isivunguvungu ngasikhathi sinye.
  • Isoneph khombisa ukusabalala kwefu
  • Isohume: yimigqa ehlanganisa izindawo nezinamathele njalo
  • Isodrostherm: Ibonisa izindawo ezinamazolo okuqina ukuzinza noma ukwanda.
  • I-Isopectic: ikhombisa izindawo ezinezinsuku zokusatshalaliswa kweqhwa, ngenkathi i-isotac ibhekisela ezinsukwini ezibalekayo.

Ingcindezi yeBarometric: Kwi-meteorology, ucwaningo lomfutho womoya lubalulekile ukulindela ukwakheka kwesimo sezulu esizayo. Isisindo se-Barometric sehla size sifike ezingeni lolwandle lapho sikhonjiswa kulayini. I-isobara umugqa ohlanganisa izifunda ngesisindo sezulu esihlala sikhona. Ama-Isoallobars angabaqondisi abanokuguqulwa kwesisindo isikhathi esithile. Ngakho-ke, ama-isoallobars angahlukaniswa kuma-ketoallobars nama-anallobars, akhombisa ukwehla kokunyuka kwesisindo ngokuhlukile.

I-Thermodynamics nobunjiniyela: Noma lezi zigaba zokugxila ngezikhathi ezithile zifaka umugqa oyisiqondisi, bathola ukusetshenziswa kwazo emfanekisweni ocacile wolwazi kanye nemidwebo yesiteji, okuyingxenye yezinhlobo ezijwayelekile zokuhlukaniswa ezisetshenziswa kule mikhakha yokufunda yilezi:

  • Isochor limelela inani levolumu njalo
  • Ama-Isoclines asetshenziswa ezimeni zokuhluka
  • Isodose kushiwo ukugcinwa kwengxenye efanayo yemisebe
  • Isophote kungukukhanya njalo

Magnetism: imigqa ye-contour iyasiza kakhulu ekucabangeni ngensimu ekhangayo yomhlaba. Siza ekucwaningeni okukhangayo kanye nokwenqaba kwamandla kazibuthe.

Imigqa ye-Isogonic noma ye-isogonic ibonisa imigqa yokwehla okungathandeki okukhangayo. Umugqa okhombisa ukwenqatshwa okungu-zero ubizwa ngokuthi umugqa we-Agonic. I-pekeeine ehlanganisa indlela ngayinye yalezi zindlela, kanye namandla ahlala ekhangayo abizwa ngokuthi umugqa we-isodynamic. Umugqa we-isoclinic uletha ndawonye konke ukucushwa kwesifunda nge-dive ekhangayo efanayo, kuyilapho umugqa we-aclinic uletha ndawonye zonke izindawo ezine-dives ekhangayo. Umugqa we-isophoric uthola enye yezindlela kanye nezinhlobonhlobo zonyaka zokuncipha okuhehayo.

Izifundo ze-Geographical: Ukusetshenziswa okwaziwa kakhulu kwama-exclines - ama-contours, ukumelelwa kokuphakama kanye nokujula kwesifunda. Le migqa isetshenziswa kumamephu we-topographic ukukhombisa ukuphakama, kanye ne-bathymetric ukukhombisa ukujula. Lawa mabalazwe we-topographic noma a bathymetric angasetshenziswa ukukhombisa isifunda esincane noma izifunda ezinjengezindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba. Isikhala esilandelanayo phakathi kwemigqa ye-contour, ebizwa ngokuthi yaphakathi sikhombisa ukukhuphuka noma ukujula phakathi kwalezi ezimbili.

Lapho ukhuluma ngendawo enemigqa ye-contour, imigqa eseduze ikhombisa ukuthambekela okuphezulu noma i-angle, kuyilapho imidanti ekude ikhuluma ngokuthambekela okungashoni. Imibuthano evaliwe ngaphakathi ibonisa amandla, kanti ingaphandle libonisa ukwehla. Umbuthano ojule kakhulu kumephu ye-contour ukhombisa ukuthi le ndawo ingaba nezindawo ezixinekile noma ezifuywayo, kuleyo ndawo imigqa ebizwa ngokuthi "ama-hachures" ayakhonjiswa ngaphakathi kwendilinga.

I-Geography ne-Oceanography: Amamephu we-Contour asetshenziswa ekuphenyweni kwe-topography asizayo, izici zomzimba nezezezimali eziqokonyiswe ebusweni bomhlaba. I-Isopach yimigqa ye-contour ethola i-foci kanye nobukhulu obulinganayo bamaayunithi wejometri.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ku-olwandle olwandle, izifunda ezingamakhompiyutha amanzi zilingana nemigqa ye-contour ebizwa nge- isopicnas, kanti ama-isohalins axhuma amaphuzu ngosawoti wasolwandle olingana. Ama-Isobathytherms agxile ekushiseni okulinganayo olwandle.

Ama-Electrostatics: Ama-electrostatics asemkhathini ahlala ekhonjiswa ngemephu engafani nalutho. Ijika elihlanganisa amaphuzu namandla kagesi aqhubekayo libizwa ngokuthi yi-isopotential noma i-equipotential line.

Izici zemigqa ye-contour kumamephu we-contour

Amamephu we-contour akukhona nje ukumelwa kokukhuphuka, noma umhlahlandlela wokukhuphuka noma ukujula kwezindawo, kepha amaphuzu avelele ahlukanisayo avumela ukuqonda okuphawuleka kwezindawo zomhlaba ezakhiwe. Nazi ezinye zezithombe ezinhle kakhulu ezisetshenziswa kakhulu kumephu:

  • Uhlobo lomugqa: Kungacashazwa, kuqinile noma kugijime. Umugqa onamachaphaza noma wokugijimisa uvame ukusetshenziselwa uma kunolwazi ku-contour base olungakhonjiswa umugqa oqinile.
  • Ubukhulu bomugqa: Kuya ngokuthi umugqa uqine noma uqwebe kangakanani. Amamephu we-Contour avame ukudonswa ngemigqa yobukhulu obuhlukahlukene ukubonisa izimfanelo noma izinhlobonhlobo zamanani ahlukahlukene ezindaweni eziphakeme zensimu.
  • Umbala womugqa: Lolu hlobo lomugqa we-contour line shintshashintshayo kumhlahlandlela wokuyibona kusuka kusiqalo se-contour. Ukufakelwa umugqa kusetshenziswa futhi njengenye indlela yezimpawu zamanani.
  • Ukugxila kwezinombolo: Kubalulekile kuwo wonke amamephu we-contour. Imvamisa yenziwa eduze komugqa we-contour noma ivele ku-contour yomhlahlandlela. Inani lamanani lisiza ukuhlukanisa uhlobo lomthambeka.

Amathuluzi we-Topographic Map

Amamephu wephepha elijwayelekile akuyona ukuphela kwendlela yokwakha imephu okwehlukanisiwe noma imiqhudelwano. Ngaphandle kokuthi zibalulekile, ngokuthuthuka kokuqamba, amamephu njengamanje asesimweni esithuthuke ngokwengeziwe. Kunezinsizakusebenza eziningi, izinhlelo zokusebenza ezinhlobonhlobo kanye nokuhlelwa kohlelo kufinyeleleka ukusiza ngalokhu. Lezi zimephu zizoba ngokunemba ngokwengeziwe, zisheshe ukwenziwa, ziguqulwe ngempumelelo futhi ungazithumela kozakwethu nakwabasebenza nabo! Ngokulandelayo, kubhekiselwa engxenyeni yalawa mathuluzi nencazelo emfushane

I-google maps

I-Google Amamephu isindisa impilo emhlabeni wonke. Kusetshenziselwa ukuhlola idolobha, nangezinye izinhloso ezingefani. Ine "ukubukwa" okufinyeleleka okuningi, ngokwesibonelo: ithrafikhi, i-satellite, i-topography, umgwaqo, njll. Ukwenza kusebenze isendlalelo se- "Landscape» kusuka kumenyu yezinketho kuzokunikeza ukubuka kwe-topographic (ngemigqa ye-contour).

IGaia, i-ArcGIS, i-Backcountry Navigator (Izicelo Ezihlukahlukene)

Njengezinye izinhlelo eziningi eziphathwayo zombili i-Android ne-iOS, amakhasimende we-iPhone angasebenzisa iGaia GPS. Inikeza abathengi ngamamephu we-topographic kanye nezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene. Lezi zicelo zingakhokhelwa noma zikhokhwe ngokuya ngomsebenzi owazisiwe. Izicelo zomzila azisetshenziselwa kuphela ukuthola idatha ye-topographic, kodwa futhi zilusizo kakhulu. Izicelo ze-ArcGIS nezinhlelo ezihlukile ze-ESRI zingasetshenziselwa kuphela ukwakhiwa kwemephu.

ICaltopo

Awukwazi ukudlala ngawo wonke amandla okusebenzisa izingcingo ezingamaselula, futhi le yindawo lapho izindawo zomsebenzi nama-PC amaqhawe. Kunezigaba eziku-inthanethi kanye nezimo ezifakiwe zokuhlela ukukusiza uqede umsebenzi wakho olandelayo. I-Captopo iyithuluzi lokuqondisa elisekelwe kuhlelo elikuvumela ukuthi uphrinte amamephu we-topographic abekwe ngokwezifiso. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ikuvumela ukuthi ubathumele / ubathuthele kumadivayisi wakho we-GPS noma omakhalekhukhwini. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ixhasa ukwenza ngezifiso noma amamephu futhi idlulisele kumakhasimende ahlukile.

I-Mytopo

Ingabonakala njengomhlinzeki wokusekelwa. Kusezingeni elithile njengeCaltopo (esishiwo ngenhla), kepha-ke, igxile eCanada naseMelika (sethemba impela ukuthi bazophinda bahlanganise amazwe ahlukene!). Banikezela ngamamephu enzelwe ngokwezifiso, kufaka phakathi amamephu we-topographic, izithombe ze-satellite kanye namamephu wokujaha okuvulekile kunoma yisiphi isifunda sase-US. UU. Amamephu wekhwalithi ephezulu kakhulu, ongawabuka ku-inthanethi ngaphandle kwezindleko noma uwathumele njengokuvela kwezinga lokuqala ngentengo encane.

Ungabhalisela Ukuqeqeshwa kwe-ArcGIS Bukhoma ku-Edunbox ngoxhaso lwe-24 / 7 nokufinyelela kwempilo.


Lo mbhalo ukusebenzisana kwe-TwinGEO, ngumngane wethu u-Amit Sancheti, osebenza njengesikhulu se-SEO ku Edunbox futhi lapho uphatha yonke imisebenzi ehlobene ne-SEO nokubhala okuqukethwe.

Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/amitsancheti.12/

Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/amit.sancheti.12

I-Linkedin - https://www.linkedin.com/in/amit-sancheti-461469171/

I-Twitter - https://twitter.com/AmitSancheti14

Shiya impendulo

Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe.

Le sayithi isebenzisa i-Akismet ukunciphisa ugaxekile. Funda ukuthi idatha yakho yokuphawula isetshenziswa kanjani.